Even Flowers Seek to Be Eco-Friendly


花兒也要講環保


OF AND FOR THE EARTH At California Pajarosa Floral, the owners invested about $100,000 to gain a “sustainability” label.

By MIREYA NAVARRO
Published: February 3, 2008


Hannah Ling sells organic and sustainable flowers in her West Village shop.

SANTA CRUZ, California–The Bonny Doon Garden Company, a downtown flower kiosk here, was recently selling a bucket of red and fuchsia anemones that were “organic.” Ecuadorean roses the size of an orange were “certified.” Roses from a nearby farm were “locally grown.” Was the kiosk selling flowers, or lettuce?
邦妮‧杜恩花園公司是一家設在洛杉磯市區的花店,最近開始銷售一種「有機」的紅色倒掛金鐘屬銀蓮花。橙子大小的厄瓜多爾玫瑰是「獲得認證」的。來自附近另一座農場的玫瑰標明「在本地栽種」。這家花店到底在賣花還是在賣萵苣?


Pesticide contamination doesn’t usually come to mind when buying long-stemmed roses. But that is precisely what florists like Bonny Doon are asking their customers to think about. Teresa Sabankaya, the shop’s owner, said that when she opened in 2003, “some people would look at me like, ‘Are you nuts?’ ”
一般人選購長梗玫瑰時,通常不會想到殺蟲劑造成的汙染,然而這正是邦尼‧杜恩花店這樣的花商要求顧客認真考慮的問題。這家花店的女主人泰蕾莎‧沙班卡亞表示,花店2003年開張時,「有些人看著我的眼神彷彿在說:『妳瘋了嗎?』」


Now, at least, “people become engaged,” she said. “Forty percent of people will say: ‘That’s nice. Why would it matter? We’re not eating them.’ ”
她表示,如今,至少「人們已經開始關心。40%的人會說:『這樣很好。可是這真的要緊嗎?我們又不吃它。』」


True, flowers are rarely eaten. They aren’t worn against the skin like organic cotton, or rubbed on the body like soap. Perhaps that’s why organic flowers have not been a big business, especially compared with organic fruits and vegetables. The Organic Trade Association says organic food and beverages had $17 billion in sales in 2006. Flowers – a $21-billion-a-year industry – brought in $19 million in organic sales.
的確,一般人很少吃花。人們不會像有機棉花那樣的把它們穿在身上,也不會像肥皂那樣的拿它們擦身體。這也許是有機栽植的花卉始終不是一門大生意的原因,尤其是與有機蔬果比較時。「有機業同業協會」指出,2006年的有機食物及飲料行銷總額大約170億美元。花卉的年產值約210億美元,有機花卉的銷售額大約1900萬美元。


That may be changing. The environmentally friendly flower is now sold on Web sites like organicbouquet.com, by small florists like Ms. Sabankaya and by big retailers like Sam’s Club and FTD, the floral delivery network, which last year introduced a line of sustainably grown irises and lilies from California and roses from Ecuador.
這個局面可能即將改變。環保花卉已經開始透過organ-icbouquet.com之類的網站行銷,行銷者包括沙班卡亞這樣的小花商,山姆俱樂部之類的大型零售商,以及花卉配送網FTD。FTD去年分別自加州與厄瓜多爾引進可持續栽植的鳶尾花、百合花及玫瑰。


And as in other industries with increasing demand for green products, the floral industry is debating what is environmentally correct. Should flowers be organic – that is, grown without synthetic or toxic pesticides? Or should the emphasis be on fair trade, meaning that the workers who grow and cut them are safe and well paid? Or should consumers favor flowers grown locally, not flown or trucked over long distances?
一如對綠色產品需求日增的其他產業,花卉產業也在討論怎麼做才環保。花卉是否應該有機栽植,亦即不使用人工合成或有毒的殺蟲劑?或者應該著重公平交易,意味種花、切花的從業人員安全無虞,而且收入不錯?又或者消費者應該選擇本地栽植的花卉,而不是飛機或卡車老遠運來的?


A majority of cut flowers sold in the United States, 79 percent, are imported, mostly from countries with mild climates, like Colombia and Ecuador. Orchid plants are supplied by Taiwan, the Netherlands and Thailand. Flower bulbs, such as tulips and lilies, are supplied by the Netherlands.
美國市場銷售的切花79%來自國外,主要是哥倫比亞、厄瓜多爾等等氣候溫和的國家。蘭科植物來自台灣、荷蘭與泰國,包括鬱金香與百合在內的球莖類花卉則來自荷蘭。


But only a small minority of flower farms have adopted environmentally friendly methods or bother with occupational health and safety measures for workers, who can suffer pesticide-related illnesses like headaches, rashes and birth abnormalities among their children.
然而只有極少數花卉栽植場已經採用環保栽植方法,或願意不嫌麻煩的為工作人員採取避免職業傷害的安全防範措施。這些人可能因為接觸殺蟲劑而面臨頭痛、起疹、新生兒畸形等相關問題。


Big environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council have added flowers to their agenda and are encouraging the public to look for floral eco-labels that can now be found in flower shops, grocery stores and other flower retailers.
部分較具規模的環保團體,例如「自然資源保護協會」,已經將花卉列為它們的日常工作項目之一,並鼓勵社會大眾選購花卉時,注意產品有無環保標章。這種標章已經推廣到花店、雜貨店及其他花卉零售商。


The labels emphasize different aspects of sustainability. Fair Trade and VeriFlora, two big organizations whose labels appear on flowers sold in the United States, impose strict environmental and labor standards on farms they audit, though they do not require them to be fully organic.
這些標章強調永續性的不同方面。「公平交易商標組織」與「VeriFlora」這兩大機構的標章都會出現在美國市場的花卉上。它們對接受查核的花卉栽植場制訂嚴格的環保及勞動標準,但不要求業者栽種的花卉必須完全有機。


PRETTY IN GREEN? A move is on to make flowers more eco-friendly.

In California, where most American flower production is based, California Pajarosa Floral in Watsonville invested about $100,000 to comply with all regulations necessary to be certified by VeriFlora, said Paul Furman, the manager. He said his company, which grows roses hydroponically in seven hectares of greenhouses and is one of the nation’s largest flower growers, would have had to spend more if it hadn’t already been using some green practices, like using predatory mites to kill thrips and spider mites that discolor petals and damage foliage.
美國生產的花卉大多來自加州。威特森維爾的加州巴哈羅沙花卉種植場經理保羅‧佛曼表示,他們已經投資大約十萬美元,以符合獲得VeriFlora認證所須的一切標準。種植場以七公頃的溫室栽植水耕玫瑰,是全美最大的花卉栽植業者之一。佛曼表示,若非已採用部分綠色措施,例如以掠食性的小蜘蛛消滅足以使花瓣失去色澤並破壞葉子的薊馬科植物害蟲及葉螨,他的公司花費一定更多。


But Mr. Furman sees a payoff. “We want to be part of pioneering something that’s good for the industry,” he said. “We’re in the infancy stage of this, so we don’t know what to expect, but we do know that the whole world is going green.”
佛曼看到了回報。他說:「我們想要成為有益於這個產業的先驅之一,不過仍處於初步階段。在這種情況下,我們不知道應該期待什麼,不過我們知道,這個世界已經走上綠化之路。」

QUANELIN 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()